We bring together information on the legal frameworks for the right to information from more than 100 countries.
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last modified Oct 24, 2011 04:30 PM

 

Constitutional Provisions, Laws and Regulations

last modified Oct 24, 2011 04:30 PM

This page of the website presents links to access to information (ATI) and related laws, regulations and constitutional provisions, including both provisions that advance the right in various ways and sectors, and those that restrict it.  These provisions address state and official secrets, data protection, archives, environmental information, public procurement, local government, legislative information, and judicial information, among other areas. Our list is by no means complete, and we invite readers to send us links to other relevant laws and provisions.

The Justice Initiative has compiled a list of countries with access to information provisions at the nation/federal level  that are actionable (i.e., enforceable in court). Included are countries that only have provisions in their administrative codes, rather than free-standing ATI laws, or a decree or regulation issued by the executive, so long as the provisions are judicially enforceable. We have also included a list of countries that do not have ATI laws but that do have actionable constitutional provisions, and a list of territories with populations over one million that have ATI laws. We compiled this list drawing on information supplied by a wide range of organizations.

For lists of countries and territories with RTI laws, and those considered likely to pass bills soon, compiled by Dutch FOI expert Roger Vleugels, please click here.

Please send us whatever corrections and additions you have.

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Model Laws

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Afghanistan

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Albania

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Angola

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Antigua & Barbuda

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Argentina

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Armenia

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Australia

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Austria

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Azerbaijan

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Bangladesh

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Belarus

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Belgium

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Belize

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Bermuda

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Bhutan

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Bolivia

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Bosnia & Herzegovina

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Brazil

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Bulgaria

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Burkina Faso

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Canada

Alberta

British Columbia

Manitoba

New Brunswick

Newfoundland & Labrador

Northwest Territories

Nova Scotia

Nunavut (Territory)

Ontario

Prince Edward Island

Quebec

Saskatchewan

Yukon (Territory)

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Cape Verde

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Chile

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China

Hong Kong

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Colombia

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Commonwealth

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Cook Islands

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Costa Rica

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Croatia

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Cyprus

Czech Republic

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Democratic Republic of Congo

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Denmark

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Dominican Republic

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Ecuador

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Egypt

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El Salvador

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Eritrea

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Estonia

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Ethiopia

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Fiji

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Finland

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France

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Georgia

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Germany

Berlin

Brandenburg

Bremen

Hamburg

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Nordrhein-Westfalen

Saarland

Sachsen-Anhalt

Schleswig-Holstein

Thüringen

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Ghana

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Greece

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Guatemala

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Guinea

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Guinea Bissau

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Guyana

Honduras

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Hungary

Iceland

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India

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Indonesia

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Ireland

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Israel

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Italy

  • Decreto legislativo 30 giugno, n. 196 Codice in Materia di Protezione dei Dati, Personali, 2003 (Italian, consolidated text, official Source); Personal Data Protection Code, Legislative Decree No. 196 of 30 June 2003 (in English)
  • Garante Privacy Decreto del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri 10 marzo 1999, n. 294. Regolamento recante norme per la disciplina delle categorie di documenti in possesso degli organismi di informazione e di sicurezza sottratti al diritto di acceso ai documenti administrativi, in attuazione dell`articolo 24, c.4 della legge 7 agosto 1990, n. 241
  • Law No. 15, 11 February 2005 (Italian)
  • Legge n. 124, Sistema di informazione per la sicurezza della Repubblica e nuova disciplina del segreto, 3 Augusto 2007. Law No. 124 of 3 August 2007 reformed the secret services and the regime of state secrets in order to counter terrorism (Italian version, official source)
  • Legge n. 241/90 in materia de procedimento administrativo e di diritto di acceso ai documenti administrativi. Law No. 241/90 on administrative procedure and the right of access to administrative documents – Arts. 22 to 28 (Italian)
  • Decreto legislativo 22/2013, Transparency Law, 2013

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Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire)

  • Access to Information Law, (official source) as assented to by President Ouattara on December 23, 2013 and immediately published in the Official Gazette.

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Jamaica

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Japan

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Jordan

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Kazakhstan

  • Constitution, August 30, 1995, as amended by Law No. 284 of 7th October 1998, Articles 18, 20 and 31

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Kenya

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Kosovo

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Kyrgyzstan

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Latvia

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Liberia

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Liechtenstein

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Lithuania

Luxembourg

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Macedonia

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Madagascar

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Malawi

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Maldives

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Mali

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Malta

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Mexico

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Mongolia

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Moldova

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Montenegro

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Morocco

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Mozambique

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Nepal

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Netherlands

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New Zealand

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Niger

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Nigeria

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Nicaragua

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Norway

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Pakistan

Sindh

Balochistan

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Panama

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Papua New Guinea

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Paraguay

  • Constitution, 1992, Articles 28-29 (in Spanish, unofficial website); (in English, unofficial website)

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Peru

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Philippines

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Poland

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Portugal

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Romania

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Russia

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Rwanda

Senegal

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Serbia

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Seychelles

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Slovakia

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Slovenia

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South Africa

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South Korea

Spain

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Sri Lanka

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Sweden

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Switzerland

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Taiwan

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Tajikistan

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Tanzania

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Thailand

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Trinidad & Tobago

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Tunisia

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Turkey

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Uganda

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Ukraine

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United Kingdom

Cayman Islands

Jersey

Scotland

Wales

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United States

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Uruguay

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Uzbekistan

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Venezuela

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Vietnam

  • Constitution, 2013 (official version available with registration; unofficial English translation available here via International IDEA)

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Yemen

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Zimbabwe

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[1] The version on this website contains many errors. The law, widely referred to as the “Wob” after its Dutch acronym, entered into force in 1980, not 1991 as stated on this website. It has been amended significantly, most recently in 2005. The current version includes a broader definition of “public body,” implements the Aarhus Convention, and makes several technical changes. Information supplied by Roger Vleugels, FOIA legal adviser and lecturer.

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Bulgaria_Electoral_Code

Bulgaria Electoral Code.pdf — PDF document, 711 kB (728318 bytes)

Sweden_Freedom_Press_Act

Sweden_freedom_Press_act.pdf — PDF document, 176 kB (180766 bytes)